Specialists in bespoke training and research
Use our cultural expertise to understand, improve and change your workplace culture. Specialists in masculine workplaces. Research, training and consultancy in all masculine workplaces including police and fire service with a particular emphasis on formal and informal cultures, modernisation, entreprenerial thinking, change management, resistance, racism, sexism and equality.   Women fire fighters, women in the fire service police, policing and equality in the police and fire service - the fitting-in website where academia and the fire service can meet to discuss fire service culture and other matters- a resource for research and consultancy for the fire and rescue service and firefighters and police and policing- Organised by Dr Dave Baigent this site provides a place to share and publish your own research, to look at what others have written about the fire and police service and to ask about our commercial offerings.


Academics are not the experts, managers are the experts but what fitting-in can do is to help managers to use their expertise.

Theory without practice is a waste - Practice without theory may just be dumb!



This study examines the performance of fire command teams in emergency situations and explores the idea that specific team member behaviours contribute to effective decision making. The results of some primary research undertaken as part of the project are then offered as a platform for debate about the future training of such teams.

A  number of models which relate to team working are considered, and although none are specific to the Fire Service many appear to have relevance to emergency situations. Consideration is given to the experiences of other industries who have wrestled with similar problems defining and assessing effective team performance. One model, Klein's Advanced  Team Decision Making Model (ATDM),   is examined in detail and its value as a descriptive tool and method of data collection is discussed. The study considers the emergence  of naturalistic models of decision making which concentrate not on the moment  of choice but rather the activities which lead up to the decision. The value of these models and the idea of using decision making as a criteria by which to Judge performance is explored.

The study describes how the ATDM   model is adapted to construct a self assessment questionnaire for team members  undertaking a simulated fire command task. This provided data on the team members perception of what behaviours were exhibited whilst operating in the London Fire and Civil Defence Authority's Minerva simulator. In addition, details are given of how a current questioning protocol is adapted and used by independent scorers to assess overall team effectiveness. The data on both team member behaviour and the team's effectiveness was then analysed. The results reveal a strong correlation between the behaviours identified in the ATDM model and the team's overall performance.

The report concludes by calling for further research in this area to improve both our understanding of and our training for command teams. It also recommends that specific training for teams should be introduced and that simulation plays a major role in that training. A common glossary of command  terms and concepts is also advocated. The author suggests that as operational command lies at the core of our professional status we cannot afford to neglect this key area of our function.


Home -- 'A fire station for all' and other Swedish Work
Recent index of contributions on fire service matter -- Older index of contributions
Workshops on fire service culture and equality -- Educational Workshops -- Consultancy
Elite briefing/workshops --- Academic Reference Point -- Are you big enough to stand a snapshot cultural audit from fitting-in -- Cultural Audits ---- Audit Commission Report   'Rising to the Challenge' -- Snapshot Audits -- Research -- Problem solving by  fitting-in -- Support for degrees and masters qualifications -- Work completed over the years -- Impact AssessmentsEquality Action Plan
Labour Government's Equality and Diversity Strategy
One Decade On - Survey on women firefighters
C&LG firefighters survey 08
Draft papers for reading
Main Index
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Some things from Australia on equality
Melbourne DiversityConference
CV & References
Have you seen Ethos?
Audit Commission on equality
How do I send my writing to fitting-in for publication
What does fitting-in publish
How do I do research - some basic tips
Writing a bibliography
Reports from Government
Diversity Strategy
Contact us
Synopsis of papers on Open Government

References: See what The Swedish Fire Service, South Yorkshire Fire and Rescue, Merseyside Fire and Rescue, Her Majesty's Chief Inspector of Fire Services, Swedish MSB and Tom Carroll (Past president of CFOA ) and others have said.

Fitting-in can provide a cultural audit that not only feeds back on attitudes in your service it also provides an outside view on how your organisation is thinking at all levels that is supported by recommendations for focussing change.This is what Merseyside Fire and Rescue Service had to say about the Ethos research, communications and training project:

"The Service are delighted with the research and reports produced by "Fitting-in. We believe that your original hypothesis and work undertaken in Merseyside has resulted in a ground breaking piece of work that can only serve to inform the wider fire and rescue communities." 

For further information or just to talk about what fitting-in can provide ring Dr Dave Baigent (FIFireE) 07802 495 329 or email

Academic theory without practice is a waste - practice without theory may just be dumb

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