Specialists in bespoke training and research
Use our cultural expertise to understand, improve and change your workplace culture. Specialists in masculine workplaces. Research, training and consultancy in all masculine workplaces including police and fire service with a particular emphasis on formal and informal cultures, modernisation, entreprenerial thinking, change management, resistance, racism, sexism and equality.   Women fire fighters, women in the fire service police, policing and equality in the police and fire service - the fitting-in website where academia and the fire service can meet to discuss fire service culture and other matters- a resource for research and consultancy for the fire and rescue service and firefighters and police and policing- Organised by Dr Dave Baigent this site provides a place to share and publish your own research, to look at what others have written about the fire and police service and to ask about our commercial offerings.


Academics are not the experts, managers are the experts but what fitting-in can do is to help managers to use their expertise.

Theory without practice is a waste - Practice without theory may just be dumb!



This dissertation was produced for my first degree in 1996 and was a 'first' academic study of women in the UK fire service. It had a considerable impact by making clear the high levels of harrassemnt that women experienced in the fire service. It also drew attention to two further points. First the institutional sexism of the fire service. Second the complicated paradoxes of fire service culture: a culture that was positive in that it allowed firefighters to bond but negative in that it excluded those that the overwhelemingly white male work force believed would not fit-in.


At the time I produced this dissertation, it was the best I could do. I still believe it to be a very accurate account of the fire service at that time. Please use this work freely and if you have any queries please contact me d.baigent@fitting-in.com



Unknown to me at the time I wrote this work, it would also provide a pilot for my Ph.D. research. This research subsequently became known as “One more last working class hero: a cultural audit of the UK fire service” (available at www.fitting-in.com/baigent.pdf). This focused on the considerable influence of informal culture on the way that firefighters organised their identity. It also drew attention to the powerful informal hierarchies that firefigthers operate within. In particular, how each cohort of firefighters socially constructed their masculinity through their work and ensured that the next generation were fitted-in to be like them (effectively a situation whereby the stereotype proved the stereotype). The final paragraph gives some idea of the outcome

"Nothing in this report can fully portray the closeness between groups of firefighters as they congregate and develop their primary reference group. Work, talk and play are so synonymous that work (including firefighting) can then become almost a social event that firefighters look forward to. But this is not so for the public. The public are frightened of fire and the fact that firefighters ‘go into buildings as everyone else is running out’ gives firefighters a special public image. This image is further extended because firefighters are seen as someone who will help the public whenever they cannot cope with an emergency. This almost establishes firefighters as special and can lead to firefighters believing their image and acting out at work how they subjectively judge they expect to be seen, by themselves, their peer group and the public. In so doing they set themselves apart from the ‘others’ who cannot meet (often because firefighters will not let them) their expectations. It is these ‘special people’ that this report has studied: a group of ‘special’ men and women." (Baigent July 2001)


This dissertation provides a case study of the British Fire Service and has two purposes.  Firstly to demonstrate how women can be denied equality at work by the politics of a male hegemonic discourse and secondly to provide argument as to how and why this situation should be reversed.  

From an empirical base provided by primary research the experiences of women firefighters are analysed alongside their male counterparts.  Foremost from the analysis comes the suggestion that the fire service is predominantly controlled by a culture that embraces all uniformed employees.  This culture has the positive effect of providing the necessary bonding essential for the trust and loyalty that is expected amongst people who work together in such a dangerous environment.  Paradoxically however, as the culture has been 'unpacked', several negative effects are identified that have contributed to the harassment of women firefighters.

Throughout the case study a critical analysis of how the fire service has failed to adopt an adequate policy in regards to equal opportunities will take place and sound economic reasons for an improvement in policy will be established.   However, because to-date neither moral or economic reasoning has persuaded the fire service to become equality conscious, a chapter has been devoted to the practical application of equality legislation in the fire service.  This will show just how much fire service culture is in contradiction with the law, and explain how women if they so desire can confront the harasser and his employer.

to see whole contents go to



Home -- 'A fire station for all' and other Swedish Work
Recent index of contributions on fire service matter -- Older index of contributions
Workshops on fire service culture and equality -- Educational Workshops -- Consultancy
Elite briefing/workshops --- Academic Reference Point -- Are you big enough to stand a snapshot cultural audit from fitting-in -- Cultural Audits ---- Audit Commission Report   'Rising to the Challenge' -- Snapshot Audits -- Research -- Problem solving by  fitting-in -- Support for degrees and masters qualifications -- Work completed over the years -- Impact AssessmentsEquality Action Plan
Labour Government's Equality and Diversity Strategy
One Decade On - Survey on women firefighters
C&LG firefighters survey 08
Draft papers for reading
Main Index
Contact us
Some things from Australia on equality
Melbourne DiversityConference
CV & References
Have you seen Ethos?
Audit Commission on equality
How do I send my writing to fitting-in for publication
What does fitting-in publish
How do I do research - some basic tips
Writing a bibliography
Reports from Government
Diversity Strategy
Contact us
Synopsis of papers on Open Government

References: See what The Swedish Fire Service, South Yorkshire Fire and Rescue, Merseyside Fire and Rescue, Her Majesty's Chief Inspector of Fire Services, Swedish MSB and Tom Carroll (Past president of CFOA ) and others have said.

Fitting-in can provide a cultural audit that not only feeds back on attitudes in your service it also provides an outside view on how your organisation is thinking at all levels that is supported by recommendations for focussing change.This is what Merseyside Fire and Rescue Service had to say about the Ethos research, communications and training project:

"The Service are delighted with the research and reports produced by "Fitting-in. We believe that your original hypothesis and work undertaken in Merseyside has resulted in a ground breaking piece of work that can only serve to inform the wider fire and rescue communities." 

For further information or just to talk about what fitting-in can provide ring Dr Dave Baigent (FIFireE) 07802 495 329 or email

Academic theory without practice is a waste - practice without theory may just be dumb

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